Pelajari Bootstrap 4 dalam 30 menit dengan membangun situs web halaman arahan

Panduan untuk pemula

“Bootstrap adalah pustaka front-end open-source gratis untuk mendesain situs web dan aplikasi web. Ini berisi template desain berbasis HTML dan CSS untuk segala hal mulai dari tipografi, formulir, tombol, navigasi, dan komponen antarmuka lainnya serta ekstensi JavaScript. Tidak seperti banyak kerangka kerja web lainnya, Bootstrap berfokus pada pengembangan front-end saja. ” - WikipediaHai, sebelum kita mulai, lihat kelas lengkap saya untuk mempelajari Bootstrap 4, di mana Anda akan mempelajari fitur-fitur baru dari bootstrap dan cara menggunakannya untuk membangun pengalaman pengguna yang lebih baik.

Ada banyak versi Bootstrap dengan versi 4 yang terbaru. Pada artikel ini, kita akan membuat situs web menggunakan Bootstrap 4.

Prasyarat

Sebelum memulai, ada beberapa keterampilan yang harus Anda ketahui untuk mempelajari dan menggunakan kerangka Bootstrap:

  • Dasar-dasar HTML
  • pengetahuan dasar tentang CSS
  • dan beberapa JQuery dasar

Daftar Isi

Kami akan membahas topik-topik di bawah ini saat membangun situs web:

  • Mengunduh dan menginstal Bootstrap 4
  • Fitur-fitur baru dari Bootstrap 4
  • Sistem Bootstrap Grid
  • Navbar
  • Header
  • Tombol
  • Tentang Bagian
  • Bagian Portofolio
  • Bagian Blog
  • Kartu-kartu
  • Bagian Tim
  • formulir kontak
  • Font
  • Efek Gulir
  • Penutupan dan Kesimpulan

Mengunduh dan menginstal Bootstrap 4

Ada tiga cara untuk menginstal dan menyertakan Bootstrap 4 untuk proyek Anda:

  1. Gunakan npm

Anda dapat menginstal Bootstrap 4 dengan menjalankan perintah ini npm install bootstrap

2. Gunakan Jaringan Pengiriman Konten (CDN)

Dengan menyertakan tautan ini dalam proyek Anda di antara tag kepala:

3. Unduh pustaka Bootstrap 4 dan gunakan secara lokal.

Struktur proyek kita akan terlihat seperti ini:

Fitur-fitur baru dari Bootstrap 4

Apa yang baru di Bootstrap 4? Dan apa perbedaan antara Bootstrap 3 dan 4?

Bootstrap 4 sekarang hadir dengan beberapa fitur luar biasa yang tidak ada di versi terakhir:

  • Bootstrap 4 ditulis menggunakan Flexbox Grid, sedangkan Bootstrap 3 ditulis menggunakan metode float.

    Jika Anda baru mengenal Flexbox, lihat tutorial ini.

  • Bootstrap 4 menggunakan remunit CSS sedangkan Bootstrap 3 menggunakan px.

    Lihat perbedaan kedua unit ini.

  • Panel, thumbnail, dan sumur telah dibuang seluruhnya.

    Anda dapat membaca lebih detail tentang perubahan global dan fitur yang dihapus dari Bootstrap 4 di sini.

Tanpa terlalu mendetail di sini, mari beralih ke beberapa hal penting lainnya.

Sistem Bootstrap Grid

Sistem Bootstrap Grid membantu Anda membuat tata letak dan dengan mudah membangun situs web yang responsif. Belum ada perubahan pada nama kelas, kecuali .xskelas yang sudah tidak ada lagi di Bootstrap 4.

Petak dibagi menjadi 12 kolom, jadi tata letak Anda akan didasarkan pada ini.

Untuk menggunakan sistem grid Anda harus menambahkan .rowkelas ke div utama .

col-lg-2 // class used for large devices like laptops col-md-2 // class used for medium devices like tablets col-sm-2// class used for small devices like mobile phones

Navbar

Pembungkus navbar cukup keren di Bootstrap 4. Ini sangat membantu saat membangun navbar yang responsif.

Untuk mendapatkannya, kami akan menambahkan navbarkelas ke index.htmlfile kami :

  Home 
  • About
  • Portfolio
  • Blog
  • Team
  • Contact

Buat dan sertakan main.cssfile sehingga Anda dapat menyesuaikan gaya CSS.

Letakkan ini di dalam headtag di index.htmlfile Anda :

Mari tambahkan beberapa warna ke bilah navigasi kita:

.navbar{ background:#F97300;} .nav-link , .navbar-brand{ color: #f4f4f4; cursor: pointer;} .nav-link{ margin-right: 1em !important;} .nav-link:hover{ background: #f4f4f4; color: #f97300; } .navbar-collapse{ justify-content: flex-end;} .navbar-toggler{ background:#fff !important;}

The new Bootstrap Grid is built with the Flexbox system, so for alignment, you have to use a Flexbox property. For example, to place the navbar menu on the right we need to add a justify-content property and set it to flex-end.

.navbar-collapse{ justify-content: flex-end; }

Add the .fixed-top class to the navbar to give it a fixed position.

To make the navbar background color light, add .bg-light. For a dark background, add .bg-dark, and for a light blue background, add

.bg-primary.

Here’s how that should look:

.bg-dark{ background-color:#343a40!important } .bg-primary{ background-color:#007bff!important }

Header

Let’s try and create a layout for the header.

Here, we want to make sure the header takes up the window’s height so we are going to use a little JQuery code.

First, create a file named main.js and include it in the index.htmlfilebefore the closing body tag:

In the main.jsfile insert this a little code of JQuery:

$(document).ready(function(){ $('.header').height($(window).height()); })

It’d be pretty cool if we set a nice background image to the header:

/*header style*/ .header{ background-image: url('../images/headerback.jpg'); background-attachment: fixed; background-size: cover; background-position: center; }

Let’s add an overlay to make the header look a bit more professional:

Add this to your index.html file:

Then, add this to your main.css file:

.overlay{ position: absolute; min-height: 100%; min-width: 100%; left: 0; top: 0; background: rgba(244, 244, 244, 0.79); }

Now we have to add a description inside the header.

To wrap our description we’re first going to create a div and give it a class .container.

.container is a Bootstrap class that will help you to wrap your content and make your layout more responsive:

Then, add another div which will contain the description.

Hello ,Welcome To My official Website

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See more

We’ll give it a class of .description and add the .text-center class to make sure the content is placed in the center of the page.

Buttons

Add the class .btn btn-outline-secondary to the button element. there are many other Bootstrap classes for buttons.

Check some examples:

CodePen Embed — buttons in Bootstrap 4

Buttons Button primary Button default Button danger Button info Button warning Button dark Button success Buttons…codepen.io

Here’s how the styling for the .description looks in the main.css file:

.description{ position: absolute; top: 30%; margin: auto; padding: 2em; } .description h1{ color:#F97300 ; } .description p{ color:#666; font-size: 20px; width: 50%; line-height: 1.5; } .description button{ border:1px solid #F97300; background:#F97300; color:#fff; }

After all of that, our header will look like this:

Cool isn’t :).

About Section

In this section, we will use some Bootstrap Grid to divide the section into two parts.

To start our grid, we have to assign the.rowclass to the parent div.

The first section will be on the left and will contain a picture, the second section will be on the right and contain a description.

Each div will take up 6 columns — that means half of the section. Remember that a grid is divided into 12 columns.

In the first div on the left side:

 // left side  S.Web Developer 

After adding the the HTML elements on the right-side, the structure of the code will look like this:

 S.Web Developer 

D.John

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Here’s how I’ve made it look:

.about{ margin: 4em 0; padding: 1em; position: relative; } .about h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .about img{ height: 100%; width: 100%; border-radius: 50% } .about span{ display: block; color: #888; position: absolute; left: 115px; } .about .desc{ padding: 2em; border-left:4px solid #10828C; } .about .desc h3{ color: #10828C; } .about .desc p{ line-height:2; color:#888; }

Portfolio Section

Now, let’s move onto the next bit and make a portfolio section that will contain a gallery.

The structure of our HTML code for the Portfolio section looks like this:

Portfolio

Adding .img-fluid to each image to makes it responsive.

Each item in our gallery will take up 4 columns (remember, col-md-4 for medium devices, col-lg-4 for large devices). That’s equal to 33.33333%on large devices such desktops and large tablets, and 12 columns on a small device (like iPhone, mobile devices) will take up 100% of the container.

Let’s add some styling to our Gallery:

/*Portfolio*/ .portfolio{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .portfolio h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .portfolio img{ height: 15rem; width: 100%; margin: 1em; }

Blog Section

Cards

Cards in Bootstrap 4 make blog design so much easier. The cards are appropriate for articles and posts.

To create a card, we use the class .cardand assign it to a div element,

The card class contains many features:

  • .card-header: define the card header
  • .card-body:for the card body
  • .card-title: the title of the card
  • card-footer:define the footer of the card.
  • .card-image: for the card’s image

So, our website’s HTML should now look something like this:

Blog

Post Title

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Read more

Post Title

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Read more

Post Title

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Read more

We need to add some CSS style to the cards:

.blog{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .blog h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .blog .card{ box-shadow: 0 0 20px #ccc; } .blog .card img{ width: 100%; height: 12em; } .blog .card-title{ color:#F97300; } .blog .card-body{ padding: 1em; }

After adding the Blog section to our website, the design should now look something like this:

Cool isn’t it? ?

Team Section

In this section we will use the grid system to distribute even space between images. Each image takes up 3 columns (.col-md-3) of the container — that equals 25% of the total space.

Our HTML structure:

Our Team

Sara Manager Chris S.enginner Layla Front End Developer J.Jirard Team Manger

And let’s add some style:

.team{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .team h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .team .item{ position: relative; } .team .des{ background: #F97300; color: #fff; text-align: center; border-bottom-left-radius: 93%; transition:.3s ease-in-out; }

Adding an overlay to the image on-hover using animation would be nice ?.

To make this effect , add the styles below to main.css file:

.team .item:hover .des{ height: 100%; background:#f973007d; position: absolute; width: 89%; padding: 5em; top: 0; border-bottom-left-radius: 0; }

Super cool! ?

Contact Form

The Contact Form is the last section to add, then we are done ?.

The Contact Form section will contain a form through which visitors can send an email or give feedback. We will use some Bootstrap classes to make the design beautiful and responsive.

Like Bootstrap 3, Bootstrap 4 also uses the .form-control class for input fields, but there are some new features added — like switching from .input-group-addon(deprecated) to .input-group-prepend(to use icons as labels ).

See Bootstrap 4 document for more information. In our Contact form we will wrap each input between a div that has the class.form-group.

The index.html file now looks something like this:

Get in Touch

Contact section’styles :

main.css

.contact-form{ margin: 6em 0; position: relative; } .contact-form h1{ padding:2em 1px; color: #F97300; } .contact-form .right{ max-width: 600px; } .contact-form .right .btn-secondary{ background: #F97300; color: #fff; border:0; } .contact-form .right .form-control::placeholder{ color: #888; font-size: 16px; }

Fonts

I think default fonts are ugly so we are going to use the Google Font API, and we’ll choose Raleway which is a nice font and appropriate to our template.

Add this link into your main.css file:

@import url('//fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Raleway');

and set the global style to HTML and heading tags:

html,h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6,a{ font-family: "Raleway"; }

Scroll Effect

The last thing missing is scroll effect. Here, we’ll have to use some JQuery. Don’t worry️ if you are not familiar with it, just add this code into yourmain.jsfile:

$(".navbar a").click(function(){ $("body,html").animate({ scrollTop:$("#" + $(this).data('value')).offset().top },1000) })

and add a data-value attribute to each navbar link:

  • About
  • Portfolio
  • Blog
  • Team
  • Contact
  • Set an id attribute to each section.

    Catatan : idHarus identik dengan data-valueatribut di link navbar agar scroll berfungsi:

    Penutupan dan Kesimpulan

    Bootstrap 4 adalah pilihan yang bagus untuk membangun aplikasi web Anda. Ini memberikan elemen UI berkualitas tinggi dan mudah untuk disesuaikan, diintegrasikan, dan digunakan. Ini juga akan membantu Anda memasukkan daya tanggap di situs web Anda, oleh karena itu memberikan pengalaman pengguna premium kepada pengguna Anda.

    Anda akan menemukan file proyek di GitHub.

    Jika Anda memerlukan beberapa tema dan templat Bootstrap, Anda dapat melihat BootstrapBay, mereka memiliki beberapa produk yang luar biasa

    Lihat Kelas Bootstrap saya untuk mempelajari Bootstrap 4:

    Kursus kilat Bootstrap 4: dasar untuk maju | Kata Hayani | Skillshare

    Di kelas ini, Anda akan mempelajari bootstrap versi 4, kerangka kerja CSS untuk membuat template fleksibel dan… skl.sh